Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone- Found at el-Rashid, Egypt196 BC

If you were to go to the British Museum you would see visitors all Craning to see this object. It is on every visitors itinerary and with the mummies, it is the most Popular object in the British Museum. This dreary bit of granite has played a main attraction and three fascinating and different: The story of the Greek Kings who ruled in Alexandria after Alexander the Great conquered Egypt; The story of the French and British imperial competition across the Middle East after Napoleon invaded Egypt; And the extraordinary but peaceful scholarly  contest that led to the most famous decipherment in history- the cracking of the hieroglyphs. The Rosetta Stone associated with a ruler who was not strong who was weak, A king who had to bargain for and protect his power by borrowing the invisible strength of the gods and more precisely, the priest.

He was Ptolemy V, hey Greek boy king who came to the Throne of Egypt as an orphan in 205 BC at the age of six.Ptolemy was born into a great dynasty. The first Ptolemy was one of Alexander's a Great Generals Who hundreds of years earlier had taken over Egypt following Alexander's death. The Ptolemies did learn Egyptian that made all their of officials speak Greak; Greek had became the language of State administration in Egypt for a thousand years. Perhaps the greatest achievement was to make their capital city Alexandria into the most brilliant metropolis of the classic -world for centuries it came in second to was a place for goods and people ID is the vast library of Alexandria was built by the Ptolemies.  They have plan to collect all the world's knowledge and Prolemies1 and 2 created the famous Pharo's lighthouse which is known as the seven wonders of the Ancient World. When Ptolemies father died leaving the boy as king. The dynasty became fragile the boys mother, was killed the palace had been stolen by soldiers and there was a revolt throughout the country that delayed young Ptolemys coronation for years.

It was in volatile circumstances that Ptolemies V issued the Rosetta Stone, and others like it the stone is not unique; there are another 17 similar inscriptions white like it that has survived all in three languages each proclaming the greatness of Ptolemies they were put in major Temples across Egypt. The Rosetta Stone 196 BC ,on the first anniversary of Ptolemly V by that time a teenager it was issued by Egyptian priest to make the coronation of Ptolemly and declared his new status as a living God but that went with the job of being Pharaoh the please had given him a full Egyptian coronation at the secret city of Memphis ,and this strengthens his position as the rightful ruler of the country. But there was a trade- off Ptolemy may have came a god,to get there but negotiations some very unheavenly politics with extremely powerful Egyptian priest.

The Rosetta Stone an expression of power and compromising it was written in several languages it was written in class a Greek and into forms of Egyptian( known as Demotic) and the priestly hieroglyphics which for centuries baffled Europenan. The Rosetta Stone opens the entire world of ancient Egypt to scholarship. By this time the Rosetta Stone was no longer in general use they were used as an understood  by priest in temples, 500 years later it was restricted knowledge of how to read and write them have disappeared. The Rosetta Stone survived unread throughout 2,000 years of further foreign occupations. After Greeks came,Romans,Byzantines, Persians, Muslim,Arabs and Ottom Turks- all had stretches of rule in Egypt. At some point the stone was moved from the temple at Sais in the Nile Delta, where it was first erected, to the town of el Rashid,now know as Rosetta,about forty miles away.

In 1798, Napoleon arrived, the French invasion was a course primarily  military
they wanted to cut the British route to India. But with the French army came scholars soldiers rebuilding fortifications.In Rosetta dug up the stone- and accompanying experts knew immediately that have found something of great significance. The first sees the stone as a trophy of war but it never made it back to Paris with his fleet destroyed by Nelson at the battle of the Nile, Napoleon himself return to France, leaving the French army behind in 1801 the French surrender to the British and Egyptian generals the terms of the treaty of Alexandria included handing over antiques among the Rosetta Stone.

Most books will tell you it only has three languages but there is for painted in English you can read: captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801 and elsewhere presented to King George the third the text on the front side of the stone as about the first European empire in Africa Alexander the Great finding of the stone: stands at the beginning of anther Great European Adventure. The bitter rivalry between Britan and France for dominance in the Middle East and in Africa which continued from the time of Nepoleon until the Second World War.

The stones brought back to the British Museum immediately put on display in the public domain free for every scholar in the world to see and  make copies and transcriptions of it was published world wide. English polymath Thomas Young correctly work on the hieroglyphics the Rosetta Stone represents the sounds of Royal name that of Ptolemys it was crucial first step but young hadn't crack the code. A friend scholar Jean Francois Champollion, realize that not only the symbols for Ptolem but all the hieroglyphs were both pictorial and phonetic- they recorded the sound of the Egyptian language. By 1822 Champollion had finally worked the whole thing out from then on the world could put words to the great objects the statues in the monuments, the mummies the papyri -of ancient Egypt  civilization. By the time of the Rosetta Stone Egypt had already been under Greek row for more than 100 years, and the Ptolemies dynasty would rule for another 150 the dynasty ended famously with the rain of Cleopatra the seven the Cleopatra boldly is seduce both Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony but when the death of Anthony and Cleopatra Egypt was conquered by a Gusta and the Egypt of loneliest became part of Roman Empire

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